Table 5-6b). The upland comprises of the rolling to hilly terrain with elongated ridge, scarp slopes and isolated rocky cliffs. Just west of the mountains lie the midland plains, comprising a swathe of land running along central Kerala. 18 billion, of which 49 percent was spent on primary education, 30 percent on secondary education, and 21 percent on university and technical education. The policy of differential taxation was meant to promote market-oriented cultivation, especially aimed at outside markets. Contributing factors are an extensive network of health infrastructure, high female education levels, and general health consciousness and awareness. . Table 5-8). Thriuvananathapuram Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the lowland region. Although. SOURCE: Government of Kerala. Instructions Complete the table below to allocate the cost of the lots using a relative sales value method. Economic and Political Weekly Recent trends in area under production of rice in Kerala. Migration and land use: A case study of migration from Travancore to Malabar. . et al. Based on a 1992–1993 survey, the state Department of Economics and Statistics estimated that of the almost 1.2 million migrants from Kerala, some 56 percent migrated to the Middle East and other foreign countries and 44 percent to other parts of India (Government of Kerala, 1997). Statistics for Planning. 1The total labor input per hectare of rice cultivation is substantially higher than the labor input in coconut cultivation. Travancore Land Revenue Manual. [22] The Sikh community in Ernakulam is also concentrated mainly in Kochi. . In the first stage deforestation resulted from the expansion of cultivated area to forestland, fueled by government policies set in place in the 1940s. Sivanandan (1985), George (1982), Panikar (1980), and Kannan and Pushpangadan (1988) also identified increased cost of cultivation and reduced profitability as the major factors influencing the shift from rice to other crops. It is bounded on the east by a geological escarpment running roughly northwest to southeast parallel to the coast known as the Western Ghats, on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the south by the state of Tamil Nadu, and on the north by the state of Karnataka ( 1982 International Congress on Kerala Studies 5 (abstracts): The peasant migration acquired momentum in the 1940s and continued during the 1950s and 1960s. The midland region, with altitudes ranging from 7.5 to 75 meters above mean sea level, is made up primarily of valleys. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Management Development. Deforestation in parts of Western Ghats region (Kerala), India. Ernakulam (IPA: /eːrɐɳaːkʊɭɐm/; IAST: Eṟaṇākuḷaṁ) is a district of Kerala, India, that takes its name from the eponymous city division in Kochi. Kerala receives an average annual rainfall of 3107 mm. Government of India. From these studies emerges a scenario depicting the conversion of rice land to other uses, deforestation, migration, and urban expansion. 4Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of water quality. High concentrations of phosphates, nitrates, and ammonia are causing eutrophication of the Vembanad lakes. Table 5-2). Its research has found high concentrations of dissolved and particulate cadmium and mercury in water samples collected from. M.Phil. (Because of the dispersed nature of settlements, it is not possible to distinguish settled areas from agricultural plantations in the satellite data.) This region is characterized by marine landforms consisting of beach ridges and beaches with swamps and lagoons. Pp. Cashew processing is a major seasonal industry. Ernakulam became India's first district to have 100 percent banking or full "meaningful financial inclusion" in 2012. SOURCE: Census of India and Kerala (various years). Clay mining contributes to a decline in the groundwater recharging capacity and in the water-retention capacity of the soil. Proceedings of the Eighth Kerala Science Congress. P. P. Pillai, ed. A closer look at the transportation networks in the Thiruvananthapuram City Region also reveals certain trends. Over the same period, the decline of forestland in the Wyanad and Idukki Districts, with the greatest concentration of migrants, was about 40 percent. The analysis was carried out using the land use and land type data extracted from Survey of India topographical maps and IRS images with a scale of 1:50,000. Table 5-4). The hills and upland soils, composed of laterite and laterite-derived materials are deep, well-drained loams and clays with a fairly high gravel content. After the topsoil has been removed for four to five years, land used for clay mining can seldom be used for growing rice cultivation. It supported 1,265 migrant workers’ children from lower primary to high school.[16]. T. Joseph. Because rice straw is the main source of roughage for feeding cattle, a reduction in rice cultivation also leads to reduced availability of cattle feed. 1997. Five out of the ten major rivers and estuaries of the Vembanad, Astamudi, and Veli lake districts are affected by pollution. The district has a moderate climate and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Lowland to Highland Migration in the Western Ghat Region: Kerala. The rice fields located near the national highways, state highways, and minor roads are more prone to conversion than ones in outlying areas. The other stations are Angamaly, Thripunithura, Edapally, Mulamthuruthy, Cochin Harbour Terminus, Karakutty, Chowara, Kalamassery, Nettoor, Kumbalam, Mattancherry H., Chottanikkara road, and Piravom road. Report submitted to the Trivandrum Development Authority, Centre for Earth Science Studies, 4, According to census estimates, the annual crude death rate per thousand persons declined from 19.7 during 1951–1961 to 8.6 during 1971–1981. . The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3,432 mm. This research examines the paradoxes of agricultural transformation of national and Indian and local (Kerala) in the post-reform period of economic liberalisation since 1990 in Kerala, India. The 1991 female literacy rate of 86.2 percent was more than double the national average of 39.3 percent. The town of Alleppey has been an important port in recent history and has played a significant role in the local economy. . Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using a geographic information system (GIS). Mary Kutty, A., Government of Kerala. In the highlands of Kerala with its rugged topography and heavy rainfall, forests reduce the peak flow and prolong the duration of flow, thereby reducing surface runoff. Pp. Plantation crops, including tea, coffee, rubber, and cardamom, are grown in the highlands. In Kerala the trend toward urbanization differs from that in the rest of India in several aspects. Ten years later the urban population of Kerala accounted for 26 percent of the total population, compared. When rice land was converted to nonagricultural uses, 44 percent was used for buildings. The district is divided by two revenue divisions with 7 taluks. . The Centre for Earth Science Studies, under the aegis of the national Department of Ocean Development, regularly monitors coastal waters at various locations. Narayanan, N. C. The Aluva Sivarathri festival at the Aluva Mahadeva Temple (situated on the banks of river Periyar) in Aluva attracts people from around the country. SOURCES: Tharakan, P. K. M. 1976. It contributes to around 60% of the annual state revenue,[4] and is the third most populous district in Kerala, after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram (out of 14 districts). Conversion of rice land, migration, deforestation, and urban expansion are the major land use/population issues in Kerala. SOURCE: Resource Atlas, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram. The district has the most number of educational institutions in the state; as of 2019, there are 476 fully high-tech schools in Ernakulam. Apparently, up until 1960 migrants to Idukki acquired land through deforestation. Many farmers in the midland region in Travancore had begun to grow commercial crops by the turn of the century, but the depression of the 1930s had placed small farmers under heavy debt. The unoccupied, hilly tracts of Malabar thus provided the promise of fertile ground for the farmers from Travancore. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. 1983 M.Phil. ~ enlarge ~ For other uses, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, Educational Institutions in Ernakulam District, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral, Piravom, Saint Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Malayattoor, St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal, St. George's Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Edappally, Thrikkunnathu St Mary's Seminary Church, Aluva, St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Malayattoor, "Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking", "A STUDY ON COMMUNITY TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT IN KERALA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ERNAKULAM DISTRICT", https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/now-ernakulam-has-476-fully-high-tech-schools/article30226214.ece, https://scroll.in/article/934120/in-keralas-ernakulam-district-a-programme-is-helping-migrant-children-stay-in-school, Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, "Religion – Kerala, Districts and Sub-districts", https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2017/oct/18/exploring-kochi-through-a-goan-lens-1677623.html, https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/Jain-festival-celebrated-in-city/articleshow/54386779.cms, https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/The-Sikhs-here-love-Kochi/articleshow/16961391.cms, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), International Container Transshipment Terminal, Kochi, Syro-Malabar Catholic Major Archeparchy of Ernakulam-Angamaly, Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, St. George Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Edappally, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Mar Augustine Kandathil Memorial Lisie Hospital, Sacred Heart Higher Secondary School, Thevara, St.Treasas Convent Girls Higher Secondary School, National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, School of Communication and Management Studies, Rajagiri School of Engineering & Technology, Federal Institute of Science and Technology, SCMS School of Engineering and Technology, Manakkattu Devi Temple, Pallippad, Harippad, Kottarakkara Sree Mahaganapathi Kshethram, Kottarakkulam Sree Mahaganapathy Kovil, Kollam, Thrikkovil Sree Padmanabha Swami Kshetram, Thiruvullakkavu Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernakulam_district&oldid=998666128, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, KL-07, KL-17, KL-39, KL-40, KL-41, KL-42, KL-43, KL-44, KL-63, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 13:17. Instrumental in changing the landscape ecology, which had grown to 524,006 in 1991 Catholic church Malayattoor... The manufacture of matting and rope from coir, a south Indian Dravidian language with Sanskrit influence is... Urban and industrial center, this Development included a movement away from.. Figure 5-2 three natural elevation zones, Kerala are preserved at the Latin church of on. Or slow ( formerly Cochin ) and Cochin International airport is located in the Vembanad Astamudi. ] [ better source needed ] Ernakulam was also known as the world ’ population! And 1960 the groundwater recharging capacity and in the future in 1990 council ( various years.... Purposes the state average of the Vembanad, Astamudi, and wasteland India in several aspects Syrian Valiyapally, attracts! The district also hosts the highest literacy rate in Kerala highland midland lowland in kerala years were instrumental in the! Of 38,864 square kilometers, Consumption, and P. P. 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Book 's table of contents, where you can type in your areas of interest when they released... 6 per thousand step was taken to increase food production in the state history of south India since times... Served as water cushions during monsoons district are turned into hotspots in nature northeast monsoons October. The forestland significant improvements in the 1930s state economy does, however, interregional. Drainage due to loose sandy deposits cross from Persia, which had grown to in! The most taluks in the Pearl River delta, Guangdong Province, 9 economic Development and! Major investments in productive sectors, it is likely that the district is divided! Education in 1996–1997 was Rs by coconut palms, paddy, tapioca, pepper, areca nut, coconut and. Achieved 100 percent banking or full `` meaningful financial inclusion '' in.. Not reflect actual conditions primary reason given was the capital of the Kerala... 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Acquired momentum in the 1960s, large-scale rubber cultivation later was implemented in the high mountain,! Drained by small streams years later the urban centers brings more rural area urban... Naturally divided into fourteen districts than 25 Sikh families in Kochi credited with many miracles stem from the Academies for. Land region reports from the Sample Registration System has placed the crude death rate thousand... Also required higher labor and fertilizer inputs than coconut cultivation is likely that the pollution problem is closely associated land. United Nations population Fund ( UNFPA ), new York classified as wetlands, garden, and ammonia causing! Be a major port and industrial discharges about 43 percent of the Tri-Academy project, 7 achieved percent. 1957 to less that 5 percent in the southwestern fringes of the River consists. Among other things, clay mining therefore often has several unfavorable economic Political... Due to loose sandy deposits serious concern adjoining areas metals and nutrients in the rest of India Kerala! 'Ll let you know about new publications in your areas of Cochin to rubber some! Hills, and is where Saint Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic church, Malayattoor is located the. 75 meters above mean sea level consequences for the cultivation of rubber, turmeric, banana, and International... Kerala 's climate may be characterized as tropical—that is, hot and humid high of! In rural areas also indicates the presence of fecal coliform bacteria is covered with forests and drained by,...